The same gray square…. Research revealed that the POWs (prisoners of war) of the Korean War were brainwashed through the tactic of: Which of the following theories assumes that people, especially those who self-monitor their behavior hoping to create good impressions, will adapt their attitude reports to appear consistent with their actions? The concept is supported by the theoretical approach to perception known as constructive perception. The mental processes that enable us to retain and use information over time, The process of transforming information into a form that can be entered into and retrained by the memory system, the process of retraining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time, The process of recovering information stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it, A model describing memory as consisting of three distinct stages: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory, The stage of memory that registers information from the environment and holds it for a very brief period of time, The active stage of memory in which information is stored for up to about 20 seconds, The stage of memory that represents the long-term storage of information. This effect, that is largely used in the science of marketing, holds that an event is more favorably perceived and remembered when the surrounding environment is comfortable and appealing. This study aims to examine the effects of Quizlet, one of the online tools, on vocabulary learning motivation in the English as a foreign language (EFL) learning context. This is known as: Rhea has two sons. A clue, prompt, or hint that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in long-term memory, The inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues. Rubin's Pathology-Raphael Rubin 2011-02-01 "The highly acclaimed foundation textbook Rubin's Pathology: Clinicopathologic Foundations of Medicine, now in its sixth edition, provides medical students with a lucid discussion of basic disease processes and their effects on cells, organs, and people. Higgins and Rholes (1978) found that when people say something positive to others when told to, it supported the fact that: people adjust their message toward their listener's views. In the context of psychology, this scenario exemplifies: Festinger and Carlsmith found that participants paid just $1 to lie to another student about how much they enjoyed a task displayed greater attitude change than those paid $20 to tell the same lie. Which of the following theories states that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs? (league of legends) bring (a fact, event, or situation) back into one's mind, especially so as to recount it to others; remember. In the context of ways in which one's behaviors affect one's attitudes, Manis et al. According to dissonance theory, after you decide who you wish to spend your life with, you will _____ the individual whose proposal you accepted. Organizing items into related groups during recall from long-term memory. How many continued working after the bell if they were made self-aware by working in front of a mirror? The principle, proposed by researchers Thomson and Tulving, states that memory is most effective when information available at encoding is also present at retrieval. Information is therefore less available for later retrieval as time passes and memory, as well as memory strength, wears away. is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated. A context effect is an aspect of cognitive psychology that describes the influence of environmental factors on one's perception of a stimulus. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent increase in synaptic strength following high-frequency stimulation of a chemical synapse. Known for misinformation effect and eye witness memory and the creation and nature of false memory. In other words, we deduce our attitudes in the same manner as would an outside observer. She concludes that she must be happy because her best friend paid her a visit the previous evening after a long time. Flashbulb memories are distinctly vivid, precise, concrete, long-lasting memories of a personal circumstance surrounding a person s discovery of shocking events. Retrograde amnesia (RA) is a loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease. (2007) investigate the idea that killing begets killing? people feel that they have some choice in their behavior. In the context of behaviors affecting attitudes, Ben's adjustment suggests that he has now adopted to his new: there is no compelling external explanation for your words. The impact of context effects is considered to be part of top-down design. Which of the following psychological effects is illustrated in this scenario? Consider which is better for the environment: Adam … Identify a similarity between dissonance theory and self-perception theory. Impression management is to _____ as cognitive dissonance is to _____. Context dependent memory refers to the phenomenon of how much easier it is to retrieve certain memories when the "context," or circumstances around the memory are same for both the original encoding and retrieval. Which theory best explains the change in your attitude? He concludes he is nervous. However, after she steals a bottle of nail polish from a store, her attitude toward shoplifters becomes significantly less harsh. In the context of cognitive dissonance theory, one can reduce dissonance after making important decisions by _____. Quizlet psychology chapter 14 ch 15 16 flashcards quizlet(2) ap outline 20 section 2 guided reading the new frontier. In psychiatry, mood congruence is the congruence between feeling, or the emotion that a person is experiencing, and affect display, or the manner in which that emotion is "presenting", or being expressed. However, after a few weeks, she feels less enthusiastic about the classes and stops visiting the orphanage. Interference occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in comprehending the new material. Gradually, the demands escalate to a point where he is required to give his statements on important matters. C. people are unlikely to internalize forced behavior. The attitudes-follow-behavior effect is strongest when: At the beginning of the 2003 Iraq war, only 38% of Americans said the war was justified even if Iraq did not have weapons of mass destruction. He is in a dilemma and is unable to choose the right course of action. is a type of memory rehearsal that is useful in maintaining information in short term memory or working memory. According to cognitive dissonance theory, in order to reduce dissonance after deciding to stay at home, Juan will likely: Conor imagines himself dancing at a college event and begins to think of himself as a successful dancer. Attitudes best predict behavior when social influences on subjects are the highest. The tension that arises when a person's two thoughts or beliefs are inconsistent is called: It highlights the arousal of tension when two different thoughts coexist. Boundary finding as model matching. is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. Percent of acquisition tasks correct for free recall, cued recall, and recognition retention tests for the blocked intentional and incidental, and random intentional and incidental groups. Identify the true statement about role-playing studies. hearing oneself talk informs one of one's attitudes. Encoding Failure refers to the brain's occasional failure to create a memory link. After being captured by enemies, Rob, a soldier, is tortured both physically and mentally. In the context of psychology, this behavior is likely caused by: As a teenager, you enjoy jogging. One of the simplest instance of relational (or context) effects in perception is that of brightness contrast. Four classical examples of context effects of the perception of area, length, orientation, and lightness are presented in a common, structured format. In the context of the dual processing capacity of human beings, unlike automatic thinking, controlled thinking is: The disjuncture between attitudes and actions is what Daniel Batson and his colleagues call _____, appearing moral while avoiding the costs of being so. Research on potent attitudes that influence shoplifting suggests that he can reduce theft by: Initially, when Ben was promoted to manager of his organization, he felt awkward giving orders to his co-workers. After you have made your decision, you can reduce dissonance by _____ the chosen university and _____ the unchosen universities. When we learn something new, a neurochemical "memory trace" is created. The misinformation effect happens when our recall of episodic memories becomes less accurate because of post-event information. an apparent recollection of an event that did not actually occur, especially one of childhood sexual abuse arising from suggestion during psychotherapy. agrees to give the speech without special incentives. Discovered the engram in the cerebellum, used classical conditioning. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It can influence what we see and hear there are a few types of motivational-emotional influence on perception: You know the meaning of the word. (1980) and Sansone (1986), rewards that seek to control people and lead them to believe it was the reward that caused their effort diminish the intrinsic appeal of an enjoyable task. Tim, a 30-year-old businessman, is asked by his friend if classical music is his favorite genre. The authors argue that this is the precisely the time when, having retrieved a memory trace, the brain can edit it. Which of the following would better predict a person's support for a Republican presidential candidate? Which of the following theories of psychology best explains Ethan's behavior? Elton feels cheerful when he looks straight ahead and takes long, confident strides. The impact of context effects is considered to be part of top-down design. You decide to use your knowledge of social psychology to improve the working conditions of your subordinates. At the end of the day, the participants reported feeling more positive when they smiled rather than when they frowned. Retroactive interference is when a person has difficulty recalling old information because of newly learned information, Interference theory is theory regarding human memory. A context effect is an aspect of cognitive psychology that describes the influence of environmental factors on one's perception of a stimulus. You find it difficult to arrive at a decision. However, she later realizes that it is the only available brand in her locality. Briefly put, "context effect" is the transference of one's environment - intellectual, emotional, social - onto the individual himself or herself. Which of the following theories assumes that to reduce discomfort we justify our actions to ourselves? Research shows improved recall of specific episodes or information when the context present at encoding and retrieval are the same. ill recently received a Botox injection to treat the wrinkles in her face. Dissonance theory explains attitude _____, whereas self-perception theory explains attitude _____. Cued recall is an aspect of recall in which the retrival of information from memory is facilitated by the provision of cues, for example the initial letter of a word to be remembered or suggestions as to the category in which the item belongs. Some, but not all, of the participants were required to make a pained expression whenever the shock was implemented. [1] Bringing to memory old knowledge has the effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance. describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing. Initially, Lucy is excited about the offer and accepts it. This effect is relevant to the study of memory and cognition, particularly false memory. In the context of social movements, identify a brainwashing technique used for American prisoners of war (POWs) during the 1950s Korean War. The relationship between your studying behavior and your attitude toward studying can be best described by which social psychological term? Research indicates that harming an innocent victim, especially voluntarily, leads one to: In the context of evil and moral acts, research indicates that if you wish to love someone more, you should: The daily flag salute by schoolchildren in the United States is an attempt to use _____ to build _____. Myra's neighbor, an 8-year-old, plays his saxophone loudly. The presence of context effects across a range of tasks and stimuli reported here and in previous studies (Ahissar et al., 2006, Banai and Yifat, 2012, Chandrasekaran et al., 2009, Inoue et al., 2011) is consistent with the idea that context effects are a manifestation of a more general process that operates across stimuli, tasks, modalities, and levels of neural processing. According to self-perception theory, your parents' behavior is most likely to _____ your intrinsic motivation for jogging. You know that dissonance theory predicts that attitudes will follow behaviors for which we feel some responsibility. Rewarding people for doing what they already enjoy may lead them to attribute their action to the reward. Sensory memory actually refers to memories of all senses while iconic memory relates to the memory of sight only. handwriting as distinct from print; written characters. encouragement and inducement should be enough to elicit a desired action. Which of the following best explains these side effects? When no such weapons were found after the war, 58% of Americans supported the war. Start studying AP Psych Unit 3 Test. However, he experiences dissonance when his semester starts. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago. Myers explains this revision of people's memories of their government's main rationale for going to war as an example of: Cognitive dissonance theory was formulated by: Although you were opposed to the American war with Iraq, your attitude changed when you were required to present a report on the justification of the war as a newspaper journalist. the action of suppressing something such as an activity or publication. Which of the following requirements should be fulfilled for an attitude to lead to a behavior? Thus, the apparent brightness of a stimulus depends not only on its own luminance but also on that of the surrounding stimulation. A context effect is an aspect of cognitive psychology that describes the influence of environmental factors on ones perception of a stimulus. Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis. However, his nervousness disappears when he notices the lights are not working in the waiting room. is a part of the long-term memory that is responsible for knowing how to do things, also known as motor skills. When this happens, it can prevent the brain from creating and storing memories. is characterized by being able to retrieve quite a lot of information about the target word without being able to retrieve the word itself. These results are best explained by: feel confident that he made the best decision; dorms are expensive and dirty anyway. You are an obese teenager who enjoys jogging. A store owner is concerned about shoplifting. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. You have recently been promoted to manager of the firm where you work. PC1 … Semantic memory includes things that are common knowledge, such as the names of colors, the sounds of letters, the capitals of countries and other basic facts acquired over a lifetime. The encoding specificity principle provides a framework for understanding how contextual information affects memory and recall. In the context of behavior and attitudes, identify an example of the overjustification effect. Your situation is an example of how: Cognitive dissonance theory focuses on _____. differences in research participants’ responses that result from the order (e.g The manager of the orphanage offers to pay Lucy if she coaches the children for four days a week. According to Banaji and Greenwald (2013), the most widely used measure of implicit attitudes is the implicit association test (IAT), which _____. Studies of LTP are often carried out in slices of the hippocampus, an important organ for learning and memory. Context effect is not written in stone. During a group discussion on smoking, Ethan says that one should avoid smoking as it is injurious to health and it symbolizes weakness. Allison's parents are happy about the fact that she enjoys reading. Framing Effect Example: Gas Mileage. B. Mahdi, a 15-year-old, is weak in math but is motivated to work hard when his teacher recognizes his effort. In perception: Context effects. In psychology, context-dependent memory is the improved recall of specific episodes or information when the context present at encoding and retrieval are the same. No one wants to look foolishly inconsistent according to _____ theory. In the context of psychology, which of the following is exemplified in this scenario? Source confusion is an attribute seen in different people's accounts of the same event after hearing people speak about the situation. The results indicated that compared with those students who were not required to make a pained expression, those who did perspired more and had faster heart rates whenever they saw the shock being delivered. Prospective memory is a form of memory that involves remembering to perform a planned action or intention at the appropriate time. This is best explained by: Vaughan and Lanzetta's (1981) study required participants to observe someone receiving supposed electric shocks. Any survey that contains multiple questions is susceptible to context effects. In this scenario, which of the following is a likely reason for his dissonance? Interference theory is theory regarding human memory. judgments in everyday life are evaluative in nature. Now that you are living on your own, you feel no motivation to clean your home as your parents are not around to nag you. Context Effects in Memory 355 85 80 75 70 65 LI : : 2 E 60 55 Y 50 05 00 35 30 25 20 15 10 L 5 he aecnii cued RWU Rerenrion 7e.t. In the context of the overjustification effect, if Myra wants him to quit playing, she should: Lauren, a 14-year-old, was fond of writing short stories and wrote at least three stories every week. Omar and Nadia are a newly married couple. As a result, they are required to relocate abroad. This behavior is best explained by: Lucy volunteers to teach the children of a local orphanage baseball on weekends. Specifically, the phenomenon addresses the impact of an environmental cue on human perception. In the context of social thinking, which of the following illustrates self-perception theory? Once we make a decision or choice, and feel some cognitive dissonance, we _____. The tendency to seek information and media that agree with one's views and to avoid dissonant information is called _____. (1974), Tesser et al. However, once you decide to accept an offer, you find yourself _____ the job offers you did not accept in order to reduce dissonance.A. According to the overjustification effect, promising children a reward for an activity that they already enjoy doing intrinsically will: pay him to play and gradually offer him less. a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact. He is also expected to participate actively in group discussions and to write self-criticism. 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